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Complete Biodegradation of Insensitive High Explosive Compounds (SERDP-ER19-1069)
The Department of Defense (DoD) is concerned about the environmental behavior and impacts of newly introduced insensitive high explosive (IHE) compounds: 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). Previous investigations have established that both DNAN and NTO are subject to cometabolic biotransformation (reduction) in soil and waste streams, which generates an array of metabolites of poorly understood toxicity and of increased solubility and mobility. In contrast, the project team has discovered that some microbial systems biodegrade DNAN and NTO to benign mineralized products (CO2, N2, NH4+, NO2-, and/or NO3-). Such systems can lower or eliminate environmental risks associated with IHE compounds.
The overarching objective of this project is to develop an understanding of the mineralization processes that will enable DoD to deploy microbial strategies for the complete biodegradation of IHE compounds. These strategies could involve natural attenuation, biostimulation, and/or bioaugmentation at contaminated field sites or enable effective biological treatment of munitions wastewater.
List of scientific/technical publications
1. Articles in peer-reviewed journals
Rios-Valenciana, E.E., O. Menezes, J. Romero, C. Blubaum, M.J. Krzmarzick, R. Sierra-Alvarez, J.A. Field, 2032. Elucidating the mechanisms associated with the anaerobic biotransformation of the emerging contaminant nitroguanidine, Water Research, 229, 119496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.119496
Menezes, O., Kocaman, K., Wong, S., Rios-Valenciana, E. E., Baker, E.J., Hatt, J.K., Zhao, J., Madeira, C.L., Krzmarzick, M.J., Spain, J.C., Sierra-Alvarez, R., Konstantinidis, K.T. & Field, J.A. 2022. Quinone moieties link the microbial respiration of natural organic matter to the chemical reduction of diverse nitroaromatic compounds. Environ Sci & Technol, 56(13), 9387-9397. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c01329
Menezes, O., Owens, C., Rios-Valenciana, E.E., Sierra-Alvarez, R., Field, J.A. & Spain, J.C. 2022. Designing bacterial consortia for the complete biodegradation of insensitive munitions compounds in waste streams. Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 119(9), 2437-2446. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.28160
Madeira, C.L., Menezes, O., Park, D., Jog, K.V., Hatt, J.K., Gavazza, S., Krzmarzick, M.J., Sierra-Alvarez, R., Spain, J.C., Konstantinidis, K.T., Field, J.A., 2021. Bacteria make a living breathing the nitroheterocyclic insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). Environmental Science & Technology 55, 5806-5814. 10.1021/acs.est.0c07161
Menezes, O., W.M. Kadoya, S. Gavazza, R. Sierra-Alvarez, E.A. Mash, L. Abrell, J.A. Field, 2021. Covalent binding with model quinone compounds unveils the environmental fate of the insensitive munitions reduced product 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) under anoxic conditions, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 413. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125459
Madeira, C.L., Jog, K.V., Vanover, E.T., Brooks, M.D., Taylor, D.K., Sierra-Alvarez, R., Waidner, L.A., Spain, J.C., Krzmarzick, M.J., Field, J.A., 2019. Microbial enrichment culture responsible for the complete oxidative biodegradation of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO), the reduced daughter product of the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). Environmental Science & Technology 53, 12648-12656. 10.1021/acs.est.9b04065
Rios-Valenciana, E.E., Menezes, O., Blubaum, C., Krzmarzick, M.J., Sierra-Alvarez, R. & Field, J.A. Simultaneous degradation of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) in bioaugmented trickle-bed reactors packed with perlite and soil. (Under review)
2. Oral presentations
Field, J. A. 2021. DNAN & NTO: A Tale of Three Fates. SERDP ESTCP 2020 SYMPOSIUM, Enhancing DOD’s Mission Effectiveness, Washington DC. [Invited Talk]
Menezes, O., Madeira, C.L., Park, D., Jog, K.V., Hatt, J.K., Gavazza, S., Krzmarzick, M.J., Sierra-Alvarez, R., Spain, J. C., Konstantinidis, K. T. & Field, J.A. 2021. Bacteria make a living breathing the nitro-heterocyclic insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). American Chemical Society Fall Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
3. Theses and Dissertations
Romero, J.M. 2022. Microbial transformation of the munitions compound nitroguanidine. MS thesis, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona. Dec. 2022.
Madeira, C.L. 2020. Degradation of the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5- one (NTO) via sequential reducing-oxidizing conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. Chemical & Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona. May, 2022.
Kadoya, W. 2020. The fate of nitroaromatic contaminants in anaerobic environments: Formation of coupling products between reduced nitroaromatic intermediates and covalent bonding of aromatic amines to humus model compounds. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. Chemical & Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona. May, 2022.
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